Important Information on Penny Stocks - Legal Disclosures (2023)

This statement is required by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and contains important information on penny stocks. You are urged to read it before making a purchase or sale.

Penny stocks can be very risky.

-Penny stocks are low-priced shares of small companies not traded on an exchange or quoted on NASDAQ. Prices often are not available. Investors in penny stocks often are unable to sell stock back to the dealer that sold them the stock. Thus, you may lose your investment. Be cautious of newly issued penny stock.

-Your salesperson is not an impartial advisor but is paid to sell you the stock. Do not rely only on the salesperson, but seek outside advice before you buy any stock. If you have problems with a salesperson, contact the firm's compliance officer or the regulators listed below.

Information you should get.

-Before you buy penny stock, [effective January 1, 1993] federal law requires your salesperson to tell you the "offer" and the "bid" on the stock, and the "compensation" the salesperson and the firm receive for the trade. The firm also must mail a confirmation of these prices to you after the trade.

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-You will need this price information to determine what profit, if any, you will have when you sell your stock. The offer price is the wholesale price at which the dealer is willing to sell stock to other dealers. The bid price is the wholesale price at which the dealer is willing to buy the stock from other dealers. In its trade with you, the dealer may add a retail charge to these wholesale prices as compensation (called a "markup" or "mark-down").

-The difference between the bid and the offer price is the dealer's "spread." A spread that is large compared with the purchase price can make a resale of a stock very costly. To be profitable when you sell, the bid price of your stock must rise above the amount of this spread and the compensation charged by both your selling and purchasing dealers. If the dealer has no bid price, you may not be able to sell the stock after you buy it, and may lose your whole investment.

Brokers' duties and customer's rights and remedies.

If you are a victim of fraud, you may have rights and remedies under state and federal law. You can get the disciplinary history of a salesperson or firm from the NASD at 1-800-289-9999, and additional information from your state securities official, at the North American Securities Administrators Association's central number: (202) 737-0900. You also may contact the SEC with complaints at (202) 272-7440.



Generally, penny stock is a security that:

- Is priced under five dollars;

- Is net traded on a national stock exchange or on NASDAQ (the NASD's automated quotation system for actively traded stocks);

- May be listed in the "pink sheets" or the NASD OTC Bulletin Board;

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Is issued by a company that has less than $5 million in net tangible assets and has been in business less than three years, by a company that has under $2 million in net tangible assets and has been in business for at least three years, or by a company that has revenues of $6 million for 3 years.

Use caution when investing in penny stocks:

1. Do not make a hurried investment decision. High-pressure sales techniques can be a warning sign of fraud. The salesperson is not an impartial advisor, but is paid for selling stock to you. The salesperson also does not have to watch your investment for you. Thus, you should think over the offer and seek outside advice. Check to see if the information given by the salesperson differs from other information you may have. Also, it is illegal for salespersons to promise that a stock will increase in value or is risk-free, or to guarantee against loss. If you think there is a problem, ask to speak with a compliance official at the firm, and, if necessary, any of the regulators referred to in this statement.

2. Study the company issuing the stock. Be wary of companies that have no operating history, few assets, or no defined business purpose. These may be sham or "shell" corporations. Read the prospectus for the company carefully before you invest. Some dealers fraudulently solicit investors' money to buy stock in sham companies, artificially inflate the stock prices, then cash in their profits before public investors can sell their stock.

3. Understand the risky nature of these stocks. You should be aware that you may lose part or all of your investment. Because of large dealer spreads, you will not be able to sell the stock immediately back to the dealer at the same price it sold the stock to you. In some cases, the stock may fall quickly in value. New companies, whose stock is sold in an "initial public offering," often are riskier investments. Try to find out if the shares the salesperson wants to sell you are part of such an offering. Your salesperson must give you a "prospectus" in an initial public offering, but the financial condition shown in the prospectus of new companies can change very quickly.

4. Know the brokerage firm and the salespeople with whom you are dealing. Because of the nature of the market for penny stock, you may have to rely solely on the original brokerage firm that sold you the stock for prices and to buy the stock back from you. Ask the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. (NASD) or your state securities regulator, which is a member of the North American Securities Administrators Association, Inc. (NASAA), about the licensing and disciplinary record of the brokerage firm and the salesperson contacting you. The telephone numbers of the NASD and NASAA are listed on the first page of this document.

5. Be cautious if your salesperson leaves the firm. If the salesperson who sold you the stock leaves his or her firm, the firm may reassign your account to a new salesperson. If you have problems, ask to speak to the firm's branch office manager or a compliance officer. Although the departing salesperson may ask you to transfer your stock to his or her new firm, you do not have to do so. Get information on the new firm. Be wary of requests to sell your securities when the salesperson transfers to a new firm. Also, you have the right to get your stock certificate from your selling firm. You do not have to leave the certificate with that firm or any other firm.


Disclosures to you. Under penalty of federal law, [effective January 1, 1993]your brokerage firm must tell you the following information at two different times—before you agree to buy or sell a penny stock, and after the trade, by written confirmation:

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-The bid and offer price quotes for penny stock, and the number of shares to which the quoted prices apply. The bid and offer quotes are the wholesale prices at which dealers trade among themselves. These prices give you an idea of the market value of the stock. The dealer must tell you these price quotes if they appear on an automated quotation system approved by the SEC. If not, the dealer must use its own quotes or trade prices. You should calculate the spread, the difference between the bid and offer quotes, to help decide if buying the stock is a good investment.

A lack of quotes may mean that the market among dealers is not active. It thus may be difficult to resell the stock. You also should be aware that the actual price charged to you for the stock may differ from the price quoted to you for 100 shares. You should therefore determine, before you agree to a purchase, what the actual sales price (before the markup) will be for the exact number of shares you want to buy.

-The brokerage firm's compensation for the trade. A markup is the amount a dealer adds to the wholesale offer price of the stock and a markdown is the amount it subtracts from the wholesale bid price of the stock ascompensation. A markup/markdown usually serves the same role as a broker's commission on a trade. Most of the firms in the penny stock market will be dealers, not brokers.

-The compensation received by the brokerage firm's salesperson for the trade. The brokerage firm must disclose to you, as a total sum, the cash compensation of your salesperson for the trade that is known at the time of the trade. The firm must describe in the written confirmation the nature of any other compensation of your salesperson that is unknown at the time of the trade.

In addition to the items listed above, your brokerage firm must send to you:

-Monthly account statements. In general, [effective January 1, 1993] your brokerage firm must send you a monthly statement that gives an estimate of the value of each penny stock in your account, if there is enough information to make an estimate. If the firm has not bought or sold any penny stocks for your account for six months, it can provide these statements every three months.

-A Written Statement of Your Financial Situation and Investment Goals. In general, unless you have had an account with your brokerage firm for more than one year, or you have previously bought three different penny stocks from that firm, your brokerage firm must send you a written statement for you to sign that accurately describes your financial situation, your investment experience, and your investment goals, and that contains a statement of why your firm decided that penny stocks are a suitable investment for you. The firm also must get your written consent to buy the penny stock.

Legal remedies. If penny stocks are sold to you in violation of your rights listed above, or other federal or state securities laws, you may be able to cancel your purchase and get your money back. If the stocks are sold in a fraudulent manner, you may be able to sue the persons and firms that caused the fraud for damages. If you have signed an arbitration agreement, however, you may have to pursue your claim through arbitration. You may wish to contact an attorney. The SEC is not authorized to represent individuals in private litigation.

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However, to protect yourself and other investors, you should report any violations of your brokerage firm's duties listed above and other securities laws to the SEC, the NASD, or your state securities administrator at the telephone numbers on the first page of this document. These bodies have the power to stop fraudulent and abusive activity of salespersons and firms engaged in the securities business. Or you can write to the SEC at 450 Fifth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549; the NASD at 1735 K Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006; or NASAA at 555 New Jersey Avenue, N.W., Suite 750, Washington, D.C. 20001. NASAA will give you the telephone number of your state's securities agency. If there is any disciplinary record of a person or firm, the NASD, NASAA, or your state securities regulator will send you this information if you ask for it.


The market for penny stocks. Penny stocks usually are not listed on an exchange or quoted on the NASDAQ system. Instead, they are traded between dealers on the telephone in the "over-the-counter" market. The NASD's OTC Bulletin Board also will contain information on some penny stocks. At times, however, price information for these stocks is not publicly available.

Market domination. In some cases, only one or two dealers, acting as "market makers," may be buying and selling a given stock. You should first ask if a firm is acting as a broker (your agent) or as a dealer. A dealer buys stock itself to fill your order or already owns the stock. A market maker is a dealer who holds itself out as ready to buy and sell stock on a regular basis. If the firm is a market maker, ask how many other market makers are dealing in the stock to see if the firm (or group of firms) dominates the market. When there are only one or two market makers, there is a risk that the dealer or group of dealers may control the market in that stock and set prices that are not based on competitive forces. In recent years, some market makers have created fraudulent markets in certain penny stocks, so that stock prices rose suddenly, but collapsed just as quickly, at a loss to investors.

Mark-ups and mark-downs. The actual price that the customer pays usually includes the mark-up or mark-down. Markups and markdowns are direct profits for the firm and its salespeople, so you should be aware of such amounts to assess the overall value of the trade.

The "spread." The difference between the bid and offer price is the spread. Like a mark-up or mark-down, the spread is another source of profit for the brokerage firm and compensates the firm for the risk of owning the stock. A large spread can make a trade very expensive to an investor. For some penny stocks, the spread between the bid and offer may be a large part of the purchase price of the stock. Where the bid price is much lower than the offer price, the market value of the stock must rise substantially before the stock can be sold at a profit. Moreover, an investor may experience substantial losses if the stock must be sold immediately.

Example: If the bid is $0.04 per share and the offer is $0.10 per share, the spread (difference) is $0.06, which appears to be a small amount. But you would lose $0.06 on every share that you bought for $0.10 if you had to sell that stock immediately to the same firm. If you had invested $5,000 at the $0.10 offer price, the market maker's repurchase price, at $0.04 bid, would be only $2,000; thus you would lose $3,000, or more than half of your investment, if you decided to sell the stock. In addition, you would have to pay compensation (a "mark-up," "mark-down," or commission) to buy and sell the stock.

In addition to the amount of the spread, the price of your stock must rise enough to make up for the compensation that the dealer charged you when it first sold you the stock. Then, when you want to resell the stock, a dealer again will charge compensation, in the form of a markdown. The dealer subtracts the markdown from the price of the stock when it buys the stock from you. Thus, to make a profit, the bid price of your stock must rise above the amount of the original spread, the markup, and the markdown.

Primary offerings. Most penny stocks are sold to the public on an ongoing basis. However, dealers sometimes sell these stocks in initial public offerings. You should pay special attention to stocks of companies that have never been offered to the public before, because the market for these stocks is untested. Because the offering is on a first-time basis, there is generally no market information about the stock to help determine its value. The federal securities laws generally require broker-dealers to give investors a "prospectus," which contains information about the objectives, management, and financial condition of the issuer. In the absence of market information, investors should read the company's prospectus with special care to find out if the stocks are a good investment. However, the prospectus is only a description of the current condition of the company. The outlook of the start-up companies described in a prospectus often is very uncertain.

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For more information about penny stocks, contact the Office of Filings, Information, and Consumer Services of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549, (202) 272-7440.


What information must be disclosed to penny stock clients? ›

Unless the transaction is exempt under the Rules, broker/dealers effecting customer transactions in such defined penny stocks are required to provide their customers with: (1) a risk disclosure document; (2) disclosure of current bid and ask quotations, if any; (3) disclosure of the compensation of the broker/dealer ...

What is exempt from penny stock rules? ›

To qualify as “Penny Stock Exempt” on the OTC Markets, an issuer must satisfy one of the following requirements: (i) the issuer's securities have a minimum price greater than $5 per share; (ii) the issuer has average revenues of at least $6 million for the last three (3) years; or (iii) the issuer has net tangible ...

What kind of risks is usually involved with penny stocks? ›

Potential risks of penny stocks

Lack of liquidity: Penny stocks are often illiquid, meaning it can be difficult to sell your shares quickly without impacting the price. Unprofitable: Many penny stocks represent a stake in a company that has not and will not generate earnings for its shareholders.

What are penny stock rules? ›

Understanding Penny Stocks

In the past, penny stocks were considered any stocks that traded for less than one dollar per share. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has modified the definition to include all shares trading below five dollars.

What information should be disclosed to shareholders? ›

Federal regulations require the disclosure of all relevant financial information by publicly-listed companies. In addition to financial data, companies are required to reveal their analysis of their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

What information need to be disclosed by the company? ›

The basic information package that publicly owned companies must disclose includes audited financial statements, a summary of selected financial data, and management's description of the company's business and financial condition.

Is selling penny stocks Legal? ›

Are Penny Stocks Illegal? Penny stocks are legal, but they are often manipulated. Penny stocks get their name because of their low share price. Any stock trading below $5 a share is generally considered a penny stock.

Are penny stocks highly regulated? ›

Penny stocks are largely bought and sold by dealers on the over-the-counter (OTC) market. In this loosely regulated and unmonitored environment, brokers submit bids and offers in a variety of ways, including over the phone or on electronic bulletin boards like the OTC Bulletin Board.

Why you should not invest in penny stocks? ›

You don't make any money on an investment until you sell that investment and realize a gain on the sale. Penny stocks bring together the dangerous combination of low liquidity and high volatility. They're often hard to unload, due to all of the above and because the market for these securities is smaller.

What causes penny stocks to rise? ›

Key Takeaways

Because penny stocks have fewer shareholders, it is easy for buying and selling activity to become imbalanced. This causes prices to fluctuate. Corporate growth on more than one front, such as rising revenues and an expanded workforce, often leads to an increase in share price.

Can penny stocks be manipulated? ›

As most trade on OTC exchanges or via pink sheets, where listing standards are lax, penny stocks are susceptible to manipulation and fraud. Still, the potential to make large returns is a strong allure, driving risk-taking investors into taking positions in these securities.

Why are penny stocks so risky? ›

Penny stocks are high-risk securities with small market capitalizations that trade for a low price outside major market exchanges. A lack of history and information, as well as low liquidity, make penny stocks riskier. Look out for scams involving penny stocks that want to separate you from your money.

What are the benefits of penny stocks? ›

Penny stocks can offer many benefits to new investors, particularly those with small accounts. However, they aren't without considerations and concerns.
Why Trade Penny Stocks?
  • You don't need a big account. ...
  • Easy entry. ...
  • Diligence can be rewarded. ...
  • Potential profit on the way up or down.

What are penny stocks called? ›

Penny stocks refer to company stocks that cost, if not merely a penny, a pretty low amount. In the US, the SEC defines them as those that trade for less than $5 per share. Because they're often sold "over the counter" (OTC), rather than in centralized stock exchanges, they are also sometimes called OTC stocks.

How do you take advantage of penny stocks? ›

Invest for short term

Investing in penny stocks should be a short-term investment strategy only. These stocks have no predictability. So you can gain money today and lose it the very next day. A wise option is to exit while you gain money, making penny stocks a suitable for short-terms only.

What is the most important item on a disclosure statement? ›

The most important item shown on a disclosure statement, is the Annual Percentage Rate (APR). An APR is the total cost a financial institution charges, to loan a consumer money. The annual percentage rate is not the interest rate.

What are the information that need not to be disclosed? ›

Facts which need not to be disclosed

Public knowledge. E.g. facts regarding govt. policies, taxes, subsidies, etc. which are expected to be known to all.

What is the disclosure rule? ›

The Disclosure Rule asks if you would be comfortable with all your family and friends knowing about the action you propose to take. Would you be comfortable reading about what you are about to do on the front page of The Wall Street Journal or the local paper, or seeing it on Facebook?

What are the most important legal documents concerning a company? ›

Articles of Association. Founders agreement/Partnership agreement. Intellectual property and assignments. NDAs and confidentiality agreements.

Why is it important to disclose information? ›

Full disclosure of relevant information by businesses helps investors make informed decisions. It decreases the sentiment of mistrust and speculation and increases investor confidence as they feel fully prepared to make investment decisions with transparency in information at hand.

What is the most important information about a company generally should be disclosed in? ›

The most important filings include the company's quarterly and annual reports, which contain audited financial statements, various notes and schedules to the statements, as well as descriptive guidance from the management.

Why can't I sell my penny stock? ›

Zero or low liquidity:

These are the small companies which attract zero or low trade volumes. Even if an investor sets a bid for sell or buy, it takes time to settle due to low volumes. This is why penny stocks are illiquid in nature, as they would not sell when required.

What happens when a penny stock gets bought out? ›

If the buyout is an all-cash deal, shares of your stock will disappear from your portfolio at some point following the deal's official closing date and be replaced by the cash value of the shares specified in the buyout. If it is an all-stock deal, the shares will be replaced by shares of the company doing the buying.

Is a penny stock a security? ›

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) uses the term "Penny stock" to refer to a security, a financial instrument which represents a given financial value, issued by small public companies that trade at less than $5 per share. Penny stocks are priced over-the-counter, rather than on the trading floor.

What are disadvantages of investing in penny stocks? ›

Disadvantages of Penny Stocks

Low price in the market leads to low capitalization. Lower liquidity makes it difficult for the holders to cash out. When an investor wants to sell the shares, he might not be able to sell them immediately because of the lack of buyers available in the market.

What are the pros and cons of investing in penny stocks? ›

Pros and Cons Of Investing In Penny Stocks
Low-costUnpredictable pricing
Chance of high returnsLimited information
Chances of overnight gainsLow liquidity
Prone to scams
22 Feb 2022

Is penny stock good for long term? ›

Penny stocks are a class of low-priced public companies. These low-priced stocks offer the chance to double, triple or quadruple your money over the long term. They can turn your ₹10,000 investment into tens of lakhs over the long term. That is, if you carefully select the fundamentally strong companies from the lot.

How do you pick penny stocks before they explode? ›

Some important points to keep in mind before investing in penny stocks are:
  1. Pick stocks of companies from the OTC markets. ...
  2. Avoid the Pink Sheet Stocks. ...
  3. Avoid the pump and dump stocks. ...
  4. Keep away from low-liquidity penny stocks.
  5. Focus on trading and keep low on investing.
23 Dec 2021

What is the most profitable penny stock? ›

10 Most Successful Penny Stocks That Made It Big
  • GameStop Corp. (NYSE:GME) ...
  • Ford Motor Company (NYSE:F) Number of Hedge Fund Holders: 46. ...
  • Monster Beverage Corporation (NASDAQ:MNST) Number of Hedge Fund Holders: 46. ...
  • Micron Technology, Inc. (NASDAQ:MU) ...
  • QUALCOMM Incorporated (NASDAQ:QCOM) Number of Hedge Fund Holders: 71.
28 Oct 2022

Do people make money on penny stocks? ›

Can you make money on penny stocks? It is possible to make money with penny stocks. Then again, it's technically possible to make money with any type of stock. Successful investors usually focus on the potential for their stock picks, regardless of price, to gain value over the long term.

Which is best penny stocks for long term? ›

Best Penny Stocks To Buy Now In India
  • Best Penny Stocks To Buy Right Now In India.
  • Suzlon Energy Ltd.
  • South Indian Bank.
  • Impex Ferro Tech Ltd.
  • Visa Steel Ltd.
  • Vodafone Idea Ltd.
  • Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)
31 Oct 2022

How do you know if a penny stock is good? ›

3 Important Factors to Consider when picking the right Penny Stocks for Investing
  1. Price Behavior.
  2. Changes in Business.
  3. Fundamentals of the Company.
  4. Market Capitalization.
  5. Net Sales/EBITDA.
  6. Shareholding Pattern:
  7. Cash from Operation.
  8. Company's Website.
13 Oct 2022

What must be disclosed under Reg BI's disclosure? ›

Details of Regulation BI

A disclosure obligation would require broker-dealers to disclose material facts about the relationship and recommendations of the products and services they provide.

What do you have to disclose to finra? ›

FINRA Rule 12405 of the Code of Arbitration Procedure (Code) requires each arbitrator to disclose any circumstances that might preclude an impartial determination or create even an appearance of partiality or bias.

What data do you enter for penny stock screener? ›

Knowing what data to enter for a penny stock screener will help you find the best low-cost trades.
  • Share Price Range. There are no true penny-stock screeners. ...
  • Price-to-Earnings Ratio. ...
  • Analysts' EPS Estimates. ...
  • Screen for Industries. ...
  • High Profit Margin.

What is disclosed in trading? ›

Disclosed quantity or DQ order is a special type of order wherein only a part of the actual quantity that you want to buy/sell is displayed to the market. You need to specify the quantity to be disclosed for such an order.

What are the disclosure rules? ›

The former rules for issuers on (i) the disclosure and control of inside information and (ii) transactions by persons discharging managerial responsibilities and their connected persons.

What are the 3 care obligation requirements? ›

The care obligation requires a broker-dealer to “exercise[] reasonable diligence, care, and skill” in satisfying three obligations when recommending a security or investment strategy involving securities: a reasonable-basis obligation, a customer-specific obligation, and a quantitative obligation.

What is disclosure obligation? ›

The Disclosure Obligation requires firms and RRs to provide in writing “full and fair disclosure” of certain material facts to retail customers before or at the time a recommendation is made.

What will disqualify you from FINRA? ›

causing repeated and routine scheduling problems; being unprepared for conferences and hearings; being unwilling to abide by the Code; and. violating the Code of Ethics for Arbitrators in Commercial Disputes.

How far back does a FINRA background check go? ›

The Fair Credit Reporting Act regulates how far back a background check can go. The background screening industry guideline is seven years.

What triggers a FINRA investigation? ›

FINRA inquiries are primarily triggered by disclosures on the Forms U4 and U5. Many of these disclosures stem from allegations made by a customer or broker-dealer. Some disclosures are financial, and they reference liens or disputes. Others reference arbitrations or judgements against the advisor.

How do I get information on penny stocks? ›

Some important points to keep in mind before investing in penny stocks are:
  1. Pick stocks of companies from the OTC markets. ...
  2. Avoid the Pink Sheet Stocks. ...
  3. Avoid the pump and dump stocks. ...
  4. Keep away from low-liquidity penny stocks.
  5. Focus on trading and keep low on investing.
23 Dec 2021

How do you investigate penny stocks? ›

Look for the exchange

While some penny stocks may be found on the major exchanges such as the Nasdaq and NYSE, they often do not meet their listing requirements. Instead they can be found on over-the-counter bulletin boards and pink sheets which generally involved increased risk and exposure to price manipulation.

How do you analyze penny stocks? ›

3 Important Factors to Consider when picking the right Penny Stocks for Investing
  1. Price Behavior.
  2. Changes in Business.
  3. Fundamentals of the Company.
  4. Market Capitalization.
  5. Net Sales/EBITDA.
  6. Shareholding Pattern:
  7. Cash from Operation.
  8. Company's Website.
13 Oct 2022

Why are disclosures important? ›

Importance of Disclosures

Increased transparency in the corporations' operations and management makes it easier for investors to make informed decisions. It also cuts down on the possibility of manipulation or misuse of investors' funds.

What is a fully disclosed market? ›

Full disclosure is the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) requirement that publicly traded companies release and provide for the free exchange of all material facts that are relevant to their ongoing business operations.

What does fully disclose mean? ›

Full disclosure definition is when a company or individual is required to reveal the complete truth regarding a matter necessary for another party to know before entering into a sale or contract. Full disclosure can apply to many different matters in the world of business.


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